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   +(36) 88 624 023 | |    H-8200, Veszprem, Egyetem str. 10, Building I.

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responsible instructor: Ferenc Bari DSc

A brief description of the subject:

The aim of the course is to familiarize students with the most important clinical imaging procedures and techniques that can be used to non-invasively image the internal parts, tissues and organs of the body. These tests help doctors diagnose, treat and monitor diseases. 

The following imaging procedures are discussed:

X-ray: The major ways to produce of X-rays, the importance of examining the condition of the bones and lungs. Characteristics of digital X-ray technology, subtraction procedures.

Ultrasound (ultrasonography): excitation and detection of ultrasound waves, application of the Doppler principle, main applications (e.g. abdominal organs) and limitations (e.g. transcranial).

CT (computed tomography): principle and practical implementation, computed tomography, measurement methods and systems, image reconstruction based on algebraic and Radon transformations, reduction of computational effort based on the backprojection principle 

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): physical background and steps of image reconstruction (T1, T2 weighting), Principle of functional MRI (BOLD, neurovascular coupling), Significance of experimental paradigms 

PET (Positron Emission Tomography): basics of nuclear medicine, the principle of molecular labelling and some embodiments

SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography): comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of SPECT (for brain and myocardial examination) and PET scans, prospects for therapeutic nuclear medicine.

Endoscopy: direct examination of the internal organs (stomach or large intestine) using optical techniques.

Optical coherence tomography, the principle of biomicroscopy and its application in ophthalmology and in the study of hollow systems (oesophagus, large vessels, etc.).

Investigation of the electrical properties of the brain and heart by non-invasive bioelectrical imaging techniques (EEG, ECG) , theoretical and practical limitations of solutions.


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2.       Kak AC and Slaney M, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, SIAM 2001 (

3.       Macowski, A: Medical Imaging Systems, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey 1983

4.       Gulrajani MR: Bioelectricity and Biomagnetism. J Wiley, New York, 1998.

5.       Rudy Y.: Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging of arrhythmogenic substrates in humans. Circ Res. 2013 Mar 1;112(5):863-74.

6.       He B, Dai Y, Astolfi L, Babiloni F, Yuan H, Yang L.: eConnectome: A MATLAB toolbox for mapping and imaging of brain functional connectivity. J Neurosci Methods. 2011 Feb 15;195(2):261-9.