Hungary

Hungary is the World of Potentials...

 

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Hungary joined the World Heritage Convention in 1985 thus recognising the duty of ensuring the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage having outstanding universal value.

At present there are eight Hungarian World Heritage Sites on the UNESCO World Heritage List held by the World Heritage Committee. These eight World Heritage Sites provides a diverse picture of Hungary’s cultural and natural heritage values: metropolis; rural context; diversity of historic monuments; cultural landscapes formed by the interaction of society and the natural environment; landscape diversity; natural heritage both below and above the ground.

 

Budapest - the Banks of the Danube, the Buda Castle Quarter and Andrássy Avenue
Cultural Category

Castle-Hill-Budapest

With the Danube dividing hilly Buda from flat Pest and a number of slim bridges spanning across the broad river, Budapest offers unique panoramic views. The architectural works of the historic urban landscape on the two banks of the Danube bear witness to significant periods of the history of Hungary’s capital city. Budapest, formed after the unification of three settlements in 1873, became a metropolis in 50 years, preserving the structural characteristics of the towns of earlier Pest and Buda: the medieval separation of the Buda Castle District which can be detected despite its distinct Baroque appearance, as well as the grandiose, radial-circular city structure of the Pest side, with its uniquely coherent, historicist and secessionist architecture, enriched by remarkable public buildings.

 

Old Village of Hollókő and its Surroundings
Cultural Category

Hollókő main street

The deliberately preserved Old village of Hollókő, where traditions are still alive, is a Palócz settlement located in the County of Nógrád in North Hungary. The rural architectural ensemble of the village is a living example of the times before the 19th and 20th Century changes in agriculture. The historical village fabric, consisting of 55 residential buildings and the church together with the traditional Palócz use of architectural forms and materials form a harmonious unit with the surrounding landscape and natural environment. The 145 hectares property also includes the medieval castle ruins situated on the hill perched above the village, the surrounding area with its strip-shaped plots and wooded pastures which was once in closer economic unity with the Old Village and were formed by the traditional land use of the rural community.

 

Caves of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst
Natural Category, Hungarian-Slovak Transboundary Property

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Due to their unique richness of form, complexity and relative intactness, as well as their geographical concentration in a small area, the caves and formations of Aggtelek Karst and Slovak Karst are of outstanding importance. The intact Karst region lying on the north-east border of Hungary and the south-east border of Slovakia, comprising more than 1000 caves, is one of the most outstanding and most complex examples of temperate zone medium-height mountain karst development, which is very rich in biological, geological, and paleontological resources. Taking into consideration the cave-types, cave-morphology, speleothems and the variety of the connecting karst-formations, as well as biological and geological-geomorphological significance of caves, the site is an outstanding subterranean museum and field laboratory of natural history.

 

Millenary Benedictine Abbey of Pannonhalma and its Natural Environment
Cultural Category

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The building complex of the Pannonhalma Benedictine Archabbey, rising on the hill which used to be called ‘The Sacred Hill of Pannonia’ (Mons Sacer Pannoniae), is landmark in the Pannon landscape of Western Hungary. The monastery of the Benedictine Order, built in 996 in honour of St Martin, Bishop of Tours, is as old as Hungarian statehood. As the founder, Prince Geza had envisaged, the monastery became one of the eastern strongholds of Medieval European culture and played a key role in the spread of Christianity in Central Europe. The monastery`s characteristic position, unique architectural structure and its links with the surrounding landscape shows the organic interconnectedness of the Archabbey with its natural surroundings and bears witness to the thousand year-long history of this Benedictine community. The monastic community follows the Rule of Saint Benedict with the motto ‘Ora et labora!’ (‘Pray and work!’) and upholds this centre of Benedictine culture with unique continuity up to this day. Rich artistic and scientific collections add to the value of the Archabbey. Its library consisting of 350.000 books is one of the world’s largest among Benedictine collections. Its collection of engravings, numismatics, and antiquities as well as its picture gallery and treasury are also remarkable.

 

Hortobágy National Park - the Puszta
Cultural Category, Cultural Landscape

Hungarian Grey Cattle

The nearly 81 thousand hectar area of the Hortobágy National Park is an outstanding example of a harmonious interaction between people and nature, which is represented by specific land-use practices such as animal husbandry, including grazing, hardy livestock adapted to the natural conditions of alkaline pastures, steppes, meadows and wetlands. The most determining scenic quality is the unbroken horizon, only occassionally disrupted by trees, groves, settlements or linear establishments (open wire lines, dikes). The kurgan burial sites and sweeppole wells that occassionally break the endless horizon as well as the taverns, bridges and pastoral buildings built in the 18th and 19th centuries, also contribute to the unique character of the cultural landscape.

 

Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs (Sopianae)
Cultural Category

Pecsi okereszteny sirkamrak

The Romans founded Sopianae in the beginning of the 2nd century AD at the place where the city of Pécs is situated today. By the 4th century Sopianae developed into a thriving provincial seat and an outstanding centre of Christianity. The Early Christian Necropolis of Pécs is one of the most significant examples of late-Roman provincial cemeteries: the findings of architecture and mural painting excavated demonstrate the early Christian burial architecture and arts of the northern and western provinces of the Roman Empire in a complex way and they remind us of the roots of a culture and civilization that still live with us today.

 

Fertő / Neusiedlersee Cultural Landscape
Cultural Category, Cultural Landscape
Hungarian-Austrian Transboundary Property

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A mysterious salty lake, marsh and moorland, reeds everywhere, romantic scenery with thousand faces. This diverse region divided by the state border since 1920 is characterised by unique natural, landscape, architectural and settlement qualities. Due to Continental, Mediterranean, and Atlantic effects of climate, boundaries of flora and fauna meet at the flat lake area at the foot of the Alps, also serving as the sole habitat of rare plant and animal species. The cultural landscape, the result of an evolutionary and symbiotic process of human interaction with the nature and the meeting place of different cultures for eight millennia, possesses outstanding cultural historical values.

 

Tokaj Wine Region
Historic Cultural Landscape
Cultural Category, Cultural Landscape

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The special climatic and natural conditions of the Tokaj region and the human activities exploiting these qualities have resulted in a unique viticulture. This wine region that is recognised as a cultural landscape is situated in the northeast of Hungary, at the foot of the Zemplén Mountains, along River Bodrog, and at its confluence with River Tisza. The combination of volcanic slopes and wet habitats results in a unique microclimate that favours the apparition of the “noble rot” (Botrytis cinerea) on the vine essential for producing „aszú” wines. The surrounding oak forests provide excellent wood for barrels, which also define the wine’s aroma, taste and fermentation process. The elements of the cultural landscape include the historic wine cellars carved by hand into mostly volcanic rocks and some other built structures characteristic of viticulture (terraces, counterforts, drystone walls, water basins, etc.), as well as the villages and small towns which preserve the heritage of the socially, culturally, ethnically and religiously diverse Tokaj communities.

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